Jun 29, 2008


1. Presumptive Signs and Symptoms

  • 1o days delayed of menstrual period
  • breast enlarge and becomes tender
  • nipples enlarge with darken pigmentation
  • "chadwick's sign"- the bluish discoloration of the vaginal wall
  • striae gravidarum- formation of white lines over the abdomen, thigh or on the breast
  • nausea and vomiting in the morning during the first trimester. called as morning sickness
  • quickening- fetal movement- felt by the mother on the 16th week after cessation of menstruation
  • frequent urination due to pressure to the bladder from the enlarging abdomen

2.Probable Signs and Symptoms

  • Hegar's sign- softening of the lower uterine segment after 6 weeks from the onset of last menses
  • Goodell's sign- softening of the cervix
  • Braxton Hicks contraction- painless palpable contraction at irregular intervals
  • Ballottement-sinking and rebounding in its amniotic fluid
  • fetal body can be measure through manual palpation examination
  • pregnancy test with positive result

3.Positive Signs and Symptoms

  • Fetal heartbeat heard with fetoscope and heard starting on the 16th week of pregnancy
  • visualization of the fetus through ultrasound
  • fetal movement is palpable by the examiner on the 20th week of gestation

Source: maternal nursing books, my nursing notes


Jun 22, 2008

Gravida - woman who is been pregnant,without regard to pregnancy outcome.

Nulligravida - woman who is not now and never has been pregnant

Primigravida - a woman pregnant for the first time

Multigravida - a woman who has been pregnant several times

Nullipara - a woman who has never completed a pregnancy to the period of viability. A woman may or may not have experienced an abortion.

Primipara - refers to a woman who had completed 1 pregnancy to the period of viability regardless of the number of infants delivered and regardless of the infant being live or stillborn.

Multipara - refers to a woman who had completed 2 or more pregnancies to the stage of viability

A woman pregnant for the first time is a primigravida and is described as Gravida 1, Para 0.

A woman with 2 abortions and no viable children is Gravida 2, Para 0.

Source maternity nursing books

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