Hysterosalpingogram

Dec 31, 2008

Hysterosalpingogram- an X-Ray study of the uterus, fallopian tubes after an injection of a contrast media this is to evaluate tubal potency and to determine the presence of pathology in the uterine cavity. This for diagnostic procedure purposely to study sterility condition.
During the procedure the patient placed in lithotomy position and the radiopaque dye injected into the uterine cavity and tubes throug the use of cannula. This X-ray films shows the path where the contrast materials distrbuted.

Maternal Stuff

Dec 30, 2008

To be pregnant is a fulfillment being a woman. An expectant mother usually feels so excited and is obviously tend to plans so many stuff to buy for herself and for the coming baby. After knowing that i was a two months pregnant i was already excited to wear maternity dress instead of our daily uniform. I should have to dress up loosely and wear a flat shoes instead of high healed shoes that i used to . And i started to have an extra care for my self with enough rest after working and don't want to go on too much shopping or go to crowd anymore.
But a proud expectant mother looks so good if they wear fashionable maternal clothes. I am glad and impress of Maternal America offering maternal clothes with variety of styles. So many designs to choose from which suits to your own styles.
Yes. doctors now are recommending to all their patients to wear nursing bra on their pregnancy and especially when they were already nursing their baby. Nursing bra clothing brand is specialized by two mom and founder of Bravado Nursing . From ioo% cotton made bras with variety of designs and sizes provide a wide variety of support for all sizes of women in every stages of pregnancy and nursing.
Another perfect maternity dressed are collections of Ripe maternity which is designed from Australia . Not only maternity dress for every day use but also nice for shower outfit. A very affordable stylish maternity tops, maternity pants, and maternity dresses for fashionable moms-to-be. Buy now everything you need is here . For further information search on bellydancematernity.com

Menopause

Dec 28, 2008

Menopause is the cessation of menstruation due to failing of ovarian function when woman's reproductive function gradually diminishes and disappears. Occurs usually at the age of 50.
Artificial menopause may occur after ovarian surgery or radiation involving the ovaries.

Signs :

  • menstrual flow gradually diminishes and then ceases
  • dryness of the vagina
  • itching and burning sensation
  • thinning of the pubic hair
  • loss of labia minora
  • decreased of lubrication
  • decreased intensity of sexual response
  • "hot flash" anxious feeling ,
  • sweating irregularly
  • involvement of bone condition like osteoporosis
  • psychological effect like anxiety, irritability , insomnia, fear or may be depression
Menopause is not a complete change of your life. It could remain active or retain their usual sexual reaction after menopause. It is not a termination of sex life
A better health after menopause to those woman who suffered pain during menstruation.

Management:
avoid stress, overfatigue, environmental problems
nutritious diet and avoid overweight
avoid anxiety by participating in outside activities
annual physical examination to ensure continuing good health

Rectocele and Laceration of the Perineum

RECTOCELE AND LACERATION OF THE PERINEUM- is a displacement of the rectum into the vagina - due to tears in muscle below the vagina, the rectum may pouch upward, pushing the posterior wall of the vagina in front of it .

Signs and Symptoms :

  • Constipation- difficulty of defecation
  • incontinence of feces and gas in patient with complete tear
  • perineal burning

Nursing Management:
  • encourage woman to see gynecologist - they must be advise for medical treatment because usually feel embarrassed and tendency to take care of herself because of her belief that it's just a consequences of child bearing. Infection, cervical ulceration, cystitis or hemorrhoids are complications if tear will not be treated

'
Surgery -is a perineorrhaphy or posterior colporrhaphy a repair of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall

POST OPERATIVE CARE:
  • perineal care
  • encourage voiding after 4-8 hours operation. Bladder not allowed to accumulate 150 ml of urine for the first few days
  • catheterized if patient can not void after 6 hours or if patient complain of pain in the region of the bladder before 6 hours
  • irrigate with warm sterile saline after urination or defecation

Medical Assistant

Dec 27, 2008

Aside from nursing course, medical assistant course is now the interest of many students. They believe that soon to be in demand job especially in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and other progressive countries in the world. One of the most popular school offering medical assistant is St Augustine School of Medical Assistant. It is well facilitated school to train professionally medical assistant students enrolled in the said school.

St Augustine School is nationally accredited to offer medical assistant course and training online. This is a medical assistant schools are meant for you to be a professional medical assistant while just at home or anywhere you are. So convenient to finish the entire course of medical assistant program by just studying online anytime around the world and training about the medical responsibilities and duties in medical field. 6-8 weeks will finish the entire program. So easy and very affordable, just simple online registration form and tuition payment modality is also tuned for your convenience then you may start online classes and training as well.

Medical assistants are health care professionals to assist medical specialist in the clinic or in the hospital. Usually in the hospital may perform to assist the basic needs of the physician by securing all the medical records of the patient and scheduling of their diagnostic procedures and make follow up results for diagnosis and assisting in all areas in patient care.

Medical assistant

Aside from nursing course, medical assistant course is now the interest of many students. They believe that soon to be in demand job especially in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and other progressive countries in the world. One of the most popular school offering medical assistant is St Augustine School of Medical Assistant. It is well facilitated school to train professionally medical assistant students enrolled in the said school.

St Augustine School is nationally accredited to offer medical assistant course and training online. This is a medical assistant schools are meant for you to be a professional medical assistant while just at home or anywhere you are. So convenient to finish the entire course of medical assistant program by just studying online anytime around the world and training about the medical responsibilities and duties in medical field. 6-8 weeks will finish the entire program. So easy and very affordable, just simple online registration form and tuition payment modality is also tuned for your convenience then you may start online classes and training as well.

Medical assistants are health care professionals to assist medical specialist in the clinic or in the hospital. Usually in the hospital may perform to assist the basic needs of the physician by securing all the medical records of the patient and scheduling of their diagnostic procedures and make follow up results for diagnosis and assisting in all areas in patient care.

ST. AUGUSTINE SCHOOL OF MEDICAL ASSISTANT

Aside from nursing course, medical assistant course is now the interest of many students. They believe that soon to be in demand job especially in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and other progressive countries in the world. One of the most popular school offering medical assistant is St Augustine School of Medical Assistant. It is well facilitated school to train professionally medical assistant students enrolled in the said school.

St Augustine School is nationally accredited to offer medical assistant course and training online. This is a medical assistant schools are meant for you to be a professional medical assistant while just at home or anywhere you are. So convenient to finish the entire course of medical assistant program by just studying online anytime around the world and training about the medical responsibilities and duties in medical field. 6-8 weeks will finish the entire program. So easy and very affordable, just simple online registration form and tuition payment modality is also tuned for your convenience then you may start online classes and training as well.

Medical assistants are health care professionals to assist medical specialist in the clinic or in the hospital. Usually in the hospital may perform to assist the basic needs of the physician by securing all the medical records of the patient and scheduling of their diagnostic procedures and make follow up results for diagnosis and assisting in all areas in patient care.

MULTIPLE GESTATIONS

Dec 24, 2008

MULTIPLE GESTATION- 2 or more fetuses are present in the uterus

TYPES:
Dizygotic- occurs 2 separate ovum is fertilized resulting a twins that do not the same genetic make- up
Monozygotic- occurs when one ovum is fertilized but divides early in gestation and 2 embryos develop resulting an identical twins

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS:

  • large uterus for gestational age
  • identified at ultrasound
  • two distinct and separate fetal heart after 20 weeks gestation
  • separate fetal parts is identified during third trimester

Protection From Fall

Dec 23, 2008

Now a days, even we love so much our parents when they are old and we have already our own family it is hard to share our time for them. My mother was 86 years old weighing 184 lbs so fat and big grandmother. Usually she just in bed and can't stand alone. She is my grandmother and i love her so much, its time to take care of her. Due to some circumstances not all the time i am at her bedside so i installed a push button bell and instructed her to push the button when she needed help or need something while i am doing the household chores. One time, she was fall down from bed and she was not able to called for help because she can't reached the press button when she was already on the floor.

There are so so many cases like this in the house and or in the Geriatric Homes i am glad that there are gadgets invented like Medical Alarm give us an alarm in cases of emergency or needs an immediate help. This no need to press emergency button because it is connected and automatically for live help instantly when sick member of the family or grandparents at home need for help.This alarm is there to give signal for help from members of the family if something happened to them. Very useful medical alarm to ensures immediate protection and security of our grandparents at all times.

Good news also for those who have Alzheimer relative who used to go wanders outdoors. GPS Powered Bracelet to keep tracts wherever location is. Emergency call center notifies you if ever user is already out of location.Very safe to use with built in speaker phone for live communication. And emergency call center is round the clock ready to send for emergency help to the user anywhere. With private GPS monitoring, your family or loved ones can get accurate location of users in need. Avail medical alarm now for your love ones! for more information search on brickhousealert.com/

Fungal Infection

Dec 22, 2008

Fungal infections caused by candida albicans.

Characterisrics of candida Albicans

  • fungus stays in sweet environment, seen in diabetic patient
  • they were usually in the intestinal tract that contaminates the vagina
Manifestation:
  • thick and irritating vaginal discharge
  • itchyness
  • burning sensation.
  • frquency of urination
  • dysuria
Management
  • intense perenial care
  • miconazole nitrate vaginal cream as prescribed.

Acai Berry

Dec 18, 2008

Usually mothers have problems on hip and belly fats after child birth. Mothers needs to be look good body shapes for their husband and for them to be confident always with other people especially when attending special occasion . Mother is free from hip and belly fats looks really nice to be dressed up and attractive to look at. Is it? Don't be shy mothers out there with hip and belly fat, acai belly is one that with rapid effect to detoxify and cleans your system which lead weight loss and belly fats disappears in short period of time. Delivers to you immediately once you order with free trial. Don't worry of side effects because it is safe because medically tested and approved. Could also lowers the risk of heart diseases and cancer. Stay healthy with a nice body that you will be proud of. search on cellulite-advice.net for more information.

Artificial Insemination

There are times that not all semen of a men can able to fertilized successfully a partner's egg cell. But they are interested to have a baby. Or may have problem to any of the parent that's why needed an artificial insemination.
Artificial insemination is placing a sperm specimen at the cervical os of a woman when the sperm has poor motility or quality. The sperm may be from the husband or a donor.

Preparation for upcoming Labor and Delivery

A woman/ couple should have to discuss with them knowledge, perception,, expectations about delivery and labor. Especially when mother is to be a firstimer on child birth. They have to attend seminars if possible and may just disscussed with their ob doctor or nurses. They need to know the valu of deep breathing exercise and encouraged and to apply during labor to facilitate delivery. They should also educate about some basic delivery complications for them to know and for their cooperation when needed.
Breast feeding is encourage after child birth.

Contraceptive Methods

Dec 15, 2008

Natural Methods:

Periodic Abstinence - abstain from intercourse during fertility period

Coitus interuptus withdrawal of penis from vagina before ejaculation

Lactation- Breast feeding could also be contraceptive effect due to prolactine's inhibition of luteinizing hormone


Barrier Methods

Condom - placed over the erected penis to prevent semen from entering to vagina

Diaphragm - place to cover cervical opening

Contraceptive sponge - moisten with water and insert deep into vagina prior to intercourse

People needs People

Dec 14, 2008

People needs people. Every man needs someone to love, someone to care or someone to talk to and someone to be a life partner. In this world we have no more right to be lonely or sad. From all the people around you, you have not yet seen the qualities you are looking for, you don't feel that you are belong to them or not happy with them. Why not try friendsation.com ? It is a free website that facilitates live chat , dating and blogging. What to do is just sign-up for free membership and your message instantly send to another member. You can chat anything you want under the sun. Sky is the limit . What you are waiting for! Join now to livens your lonely heart. Online chat rooms also available for members to chat with other members. You can talk live through phone chat to anyone residing in the US without any expenses. Time flies so fast. Chat now!

Human Papillomavirus

Human papillomavirus - caused by condymoma acuminatum (venereal warts) by sexual transmission and highly contagious:

Signs and symptoms:
vulvar or vaginal lumps or warty growths
bleeding
painless lesions but detected by pop smear
discharges increase
odorous

Management:
this should be treated during pregnancy to prevent contamination of baby during delivery

Twenty One Qustions Tag

Dec 12, 2008

I’ve been tagged by Mommy Elvz . Thanks again mommy for this tag :)

1. Add your blog/s to the list. Feel free to add all your other blogs. It’s okey if you only post this questions in one blog as long as you answer them.
2. Get back to ME and I’ll add your blogs to the master’s list HERE {Note that you are not ALLOWED to change this links and make sure to leave the exact URL.}
3. Copy from Start to End.
4. Tag as many friends online you know. But you don’t need to be tag in order to join. Who played along:

1. Music of my Heart 2. Me and Mine 3. Creative in Me 4. For the LOVE of Food 5. Little Peanut 6. Pea in a Pod 7. It’s Where the HEART Is 8. Around the World 9. FunFierceFabulous 10. Ozzy’s Mom 11. Me,Myself+2 12. Kidd Designs 13. Complex Life 14. BeautifuL s0UL 15. Kurdapya Meets World 16. once we were 2… 17 Pinaymama’s Diary 18. Best Pinay Mom 19. survivor mom 20. maternity woman 21 nurse note 22 mothercares 23 psycha 24 Your Blog here

Questions and Answers:

1. Grab the book nearest to you, turn to page 18, find line 4. Write down what it says:..'"What drives you Nuts?

2. Stretch your left arm out as far as you can. What do you touch first?… window curtain

3.What is the last thing you watched on TV? Survivor Philippines

4.WITHOUT LOOKING, guess what time it is: 12:00 noon

5. Now look at the clock, what is the actual time?…12:o8 noon

6. With the exception of the computer, what can you hear?…. kids playing outside

7. When did you last step outside? what were you doing? .... cooking

8. Before you came to this website, what did you look at? Emails

9. What are you wearing?… house blouse and short pant

10. Did you dream last night?…i can’t remember

11. When did you last laugh?….last night

12. What is on the walls of the room you are in?… garage

13. Seen anything weird lately?.. nope

14. What do you think of this quiz?..it’s fun!

15. What is the last movie you saw?…

16. If you became a multi-millionaire overnight, what would you buy first? ....house and lots

17. Tell me something about you that I don’t know:..I’m considerate…

18. If you could change one thing about the world, regardless of guilt or politics, what would you do?… '' only one language

19. Do you like to dance?..no, i’m not a good dancer ^_^

20. Imagine your first child is a girl, what do you call her? a boy?… my first child is really a girl and i named her Christine , and second is a boy i named him Joshua

I am tagging: Lalaine , mom of four,
purple worm , Ask me a Recipe

Nouveau Riche

Dec 11, 2008

Nouveau Riche is multi visions on education, events , about and press. First objective is to educate students or anyone who is determined to learn about real state investing or successful entrepreneurs.They will help anyone to know the strategy to become a rich . Nouveau Riche is always ready with an open doors to everybody even to poor students are given the chance to study and learn the vital information on business success. Provides tools , training and seminars, systems and support to avail the right path to be successful in business. The best smart and experienced professor will openly gives the tips and shares the secret for success. Personally i am impressed so much and congratulates Nouveau Riche because of their sincerity of sharing their knowledge and facilities to everyone. No wonder, Nouveau Riche was featured also in business magazine and the press are interested to cover all the events. For more information search on graduateriche.com

The new Chief Executive Officer of Nouveau Riche now is Laura Palmer Noone. Who does not know about Laura Palmer? She was the President of University of Phonex the largest university of the intire world. She was the one who made this university the largest. How lucky Nouveau Riche to have Laura Palmer as the chief officer. She started working with Nouveau Riche by focusing on small business and entrepreneural to the students. Aside from being a preident of Phonex , she also serves as board on the Arizona Board for Private postsecondary Education and the Arizona Family College. She is also involves in several charitable foundations and institutions.

Nouveau was founded by entrepreneur Jim Piccolo with the intent of offering practical knowledge for jump-starting students' careers. It offers associate and bachelor's degrees in business.

Abdominal Hysterectomy

Dec 10, 2008

Abdominal Hysterectomy- a midline incision of the abdomen to remove the uterus under general anesthesia

Sub total hysterectomy- only fundus of the uterus removed

Total Hysterectomy complete removal of the uterus,including tubes and ovaries ,cervix

Postoperative Care:

  • Monitor vital signs -Blood pressure, pulse, temperature, respiratory rate and record. Inform the physician for any abnormality
  • Check airways, drains, catheter or anything supportive aid from the operating room
  • Check abdominal dressings for any bleeding. Be sure dressing must not soaked with fresh blood
  • There are patient have respiratory difficulties due to prolonged anesthesia- nurse must be alert on this when patient have difficulty of breathing by noisy and irregular respiration, choking or cyanosis (bluesh discoloration )
  • Care of the indwelling catheter- should be in place and urine must flow freely. Must have to remove on the third day and encouraged the patient to urinate freely
  • No foods for the first day or second day .
  • Start at oral fluids then soft diet
  • second day may sit and stand and on the third day may walk around the bed. Walk slowly and support the abdomen. Be sure someone with you during first ambulation. Early ambulation facilitates faster wound healing
  • Advise patient to wear abdominal binder or girdle
  • Emotional support to patient and let her to ask questions
  • Patients needs to know that sexual relations and physical activities may be resume if operation fully healed

Identity Protection

LIfelock is very important now a days. Identity theft is just around the corner. I myself too , i am sometimes worried because several emails i received informing me that i won huge dollars and how to redeemed the prize is to give them my identity informations. We should not just ignore lifelock company because purposely saves us from identity theft and falsification of documents.
Right now Lifelock promotes Lifelock promotion code RD32 . Offering big discount to a new costumer either you enroll trough the telephone or online, definitely you are entitled to give you discount. Only 9 dollars a month and 30 days free and for kids is 2.25 dollars a month with the same 30 days free. See? a big discount which other company can not offer.
Life lock so many things can do to you to protect you. Not only to monitor your credit cards movement but to to trap anyone tries to open a credit account under your name. Once you have enrolled to Lifelock , fraud alert is installed in your bank account . anyone tries to expand your credit limit the bank will call you for confirmation and if you confirmed that your not making any transaction then the bank stop the transaction before the damage done.
LIfe locks guarded your information in the internet including your Social Security Number, credit card number e-mail address or license number. NO one of these identification numbers can be stolen by someone because it is fully guarded by LifeLock. If ever someone changed your address, well Life lock has the capability to detect someone changing your address and ensures that thieves can never changed your address.
Anybody must to consider the LifeLock review ofs about the LifeLock's services. It is completely covered all the protection from thieves like Fraud alerts, No more junk mail, no more phone solicitors, no credit reports and walletLocks. See.. full protection is here. so what 's you're waiting for? enroll now to have a peace of mine!

Fibroadenomata-Tumors of the Breast

Dec 5, 2008

Fibroadenomata- a slow growing tumor


Signs and symptoms :

  • movable lumps
  • firm
  • painless
  • size does not change on menstrual period

Diagnostic Evaluation:

surgical excision of lumps

Loans

This is an opportunity to every individual who does not have capital to start with a business. I myself too started with just a small business and after several month it was just simultaneously and unexpectedly sales improved which enough for our daily expenses and tuition fees for my kids.
365SmallbusinessLoan.com is here to offer you an unsecured loan primarily to start for a small business loans and personal loan rates.This is the the company to provide you help in time of emergency needs either capital for business or personal loans like for vacation purposes if ever you have decided for a vacation. Usually business financing nowadays is not easy to avail due to rampant bad credit problem but this company is readily open arms for financing your business and no assets or collateral needed. Just fill-up the application forms for to minutes and result approved in 48 hours. The same process for personal loans avail them all in just 48 hours and no documents needed. Enroll now !


Fissures of the Breast

Nov 30, 2008

Fissure of the nipple is an ulceration develops in the breast of a nursing mother.

Causes:
aggravated by sucking infant

Signs and Symptoms:
sore of the nipple
irritation
bleeding
pain

Nursing Care:
proper technique of breast feeding
advise patient wash with sterile saline solution
instruct to use artificial nipple for nursing
stop nursing if sore does not heal and use breast pump
wash nipple before and after nursing .
keep it dry after nursing
lanolin cream to prevent cracking but wash to remove before nursing

Pregnancy Discomforts

Nov 26, 2008

morning sickness - an expectant mother manifest nausea accompanied by vomiting usually in the morning or sometimes anytime of the day. It is an unknown cause but many had believe that may be due to hormonal imbalance . In this case , a mother advise to eat small amount but frequent, eat attractive food like colored fruits and eat foods that are easily digest.

Urinary frequency is also one discomfort due to the enlargement of the uterus and pushes down the urinary bladder.

Heartburn -the enlarged uterus pushed up the stomach. so tendency of the gastric contents reflux in the lower esophagus. Advise mother to eat foods that easily digest in small amount but frequent.

Backache- due to pregnancy's increase weight and enlargement of the abdomen -she walks or stand, she position herself with head up and shoulder backward, and chest forward to prevent possible imbalance .

Constipation- due decrease intestinal peristalsis. Advise mother to eat foods high in fiber. Increase fluid intake. Practice regular pattern of elimination. Laxative if necessary and if doctor prescribed.

Respiratory Discomfort due to pressure of the enlarged uterus on diaphragm. Some relief will do by good posture and semi Fowler's position. Eat in small amount but frequent to avoid full stomach

Varicose Veins due to pressure of gravid uterus on large veins. Prolonged standing as one factor. Advise mother avoid prolonged standing. Elevate the lower extremities when lying. avoid constricting clothing

Leg cramps- may be due to impaired absorption of calcium. Adequate calcium intake may help

Legs and ankle edema - due to pressure distract the venous and lymphatic return. Elevation of legs may help

Amenorrhea , menorrhagia

Nov 23, 2008

Primary Amenorrhea- absence of mentstruation. a term used when a young girl has not menstruate yet at 16 and 17. This may caused by anatomic development and treated according to to etiology.


Secondary Amenorrhea- occurs normally during pregnancy and lactation.

Possible causes

  • extreme anxiety
  • acute or chronic disease
  • ovarian tumors
Treatment- treat the cause


Menorrhagia- excessive bleeding during regular menstrual flow

Possible causes
-----due to endocrine disturbances if menorrhagia at early age.
-----due to inflammatory disturbance or tumors of the uterus if menorrhagia in later life
-----emotional disturbance may also affect bleeding

This is probably a symptoms of menstrual dysfunction, it is important to seek madical check up for investigation. And for hemoglobin blood count

LifeLock surely protects Me

Nov 20, 2008

Your one of the credit card holder Right? But sometimes your have fear that you will be victim of identity theft. More theft victim reported now a days but still an unsolved cases. id-theft-security.com this will help you to wipe away your worries to loss you wealth and huge assets. Lifelock protects your credit card when someone try to stole your identity of your credit card and if anyone of your family wants to make fraud of your documents. This assure you that you are much protected and you can go for any where for a vacation or business travels around the world you will be worry free and sleep well.

Once you enroll LifeLock it is guaranteed that your personal or financial will never be stole. Why? Hundred millions already a victim of identity in America alone but not been recovered. So the reason why Lifelock released a new programs to all new enrollees that can now avail automatically First is the eRecon . an stand by guarding your business in the internet if any one tries to take your information can be detected earlier before stolen. Like more than a batman . Isn't it? Second is about your " true address". It is immediately detected if someone try to change your address and they can make transaction charge to you. They will be caught in the act and theft never succeed.

Despite so many Life Lock company, LifeLock is the only trusted company that you are 100% protected from identity theft and you will find full security of your business , credit card and your documents. So enroll now! automatically secured once you enroll.

Dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea- painful menstruation

Types:
Primary-due to hormonal, obstructive and psychological factors

Secondary-due to lesions such as endometriosis, pelvic infection, congenital abnormality, uterine fibroids

Signs and symptoms
Pain
nausea and vomiting
headache
chills
tiredness
nervousness
low backache

Management:
physical examination to rule out the cause
warm compress-
non-narcotic analgesic
oral contraceptives as prescribed by the gynecologist
dilatation and curretage

take care of our reproductive system

Nov 16, 2008

Three years ago,I had dilatation and curretage procedure by my gynecologist. I had a bleeding for 2-3 weeks a month and some blood clots . Blood count was done . My hemoglobin dropped to 6 and the normal is 12 so my doctor did the operation right away after pre operation care done by the nurse. Histopathological done and thanks God there is carcinomic findings. It was just a necrotic decidual tissues.
To all women out there, if we felt or noticed something abnormal we must consult our gynecologist right away like abnormal menstruation - profuse or scanty or painful menstruation, feeling of something unusual. Our reproductive system is prone to cancer so must make a habit of regular check up.

SURE WIN

Nov 13, 2008

My sister is working as a nurse in Last Vegas. Two years ago she sent me one thousand dollars at P 43,ooo.00 Philippine money. She instructed me to donate the whole amount to one of our neighbor in the province who's house is already about to collapse. She's an old woman single parent and left by her single parent daughter. She's alone racing the kids. Because she's old and no job she's just extending a little help in the house hold chores of our neighbors to get something food to eat. I told her "I need money too for my kids enrollment. I am working hard for my kids alone not asking a help from you but you help other?" But she said she won at Online casinos so, she just only sharing to the poor of what she had won. She did'nt work for it. She just enjoy to play the USA online casino and won instantly. My sister is a home body person. She' not interested to go outside to play casino and not a gambler . When she was alone in their house she tried to hook Online casino while waiting for her husband and son.
What a great experience of my sister. Why not try also? friends and parents out there. Very convenient .

ABORTION

Nov 11, 2008

Abortion-is a termination of pregnancy. In layman's term is called "miscarriage". It is consider aborted fetus if weighs 1,000 grams. it may be an intentional due to unwanted for mother's own reason. other's cause may due to to systemic disease or hormonal imbalance. An abortion that occurs naturally is SPONTANEOUS ABORTION with unknown cause in some processes like complete, incomplete threatened or inevitable. In some cases , they have 3 0r more consecutive abortions in unknown cause is called HABITUAL ABORTION. In certain circumstances, ther are cases that pregnancy is consider to terminate for the sake of life of a mother. If seriously affect the health of the mother. Usually done by an skilled medicl personnel in a hospital therapeutically. This abortion called THERAPEUTIC ABORTION which is opposite of CRIMINAL ABORTION- the termination of pregnancy illegally. And this is usually resulted to infections that endanger the life of a mother.

Tag

Nov 8, 2008

I’ve been tagged by Survivor mom Thanks mom and :)

1. Add your blog/s to the list. Feel free to add all your other blogs. It’s okey if you only post this questions in one blog as long as you answer them.
2. Get back to ME and I’ll add your blogs to the master’s list HERE {Note that you are not ALLOWED to change this links and make sure to leave the exact URL.}
3. Copy from Start to End.
4. Tag as many friends online you know. But you don’t need to be tag in order to join. Who played along:

1. Music of my Heart 2. Me and Mine 3. Creative in Me 4. For the LOVE of Food 5. Little Peanut 6. Pea in a Pod 7. It’s Where the HEART Is 8. Around the World 9. FunFierceFabulous 10. Ozzy’s Mom 11. Me,Myself+2 12. Kidd Designs 13. Complex Life 14. BeautifuL s0UL 15. Kurdapya Meets World 16. once we were 2… 17 Pinaymama’s Diary 18. Best Pinay Mom 19. Survivor mom 20. Mothercares 21. nursing notes 22. maternal nursing 23Your Blog here

Questions and Answers:

1. Grab the book nearest to you, turn to page 18, find line 4. Write down what it says:..“Knowing what i know now, I can’t imagine growing up in this world without having faith in Jesus Christ,” Smoltz says in an interview at Atlanta’s Turner Field.

2. Stretch your left arm out as far as you can. What do you touch first?…Window

3.What is the last thing you watched on TV? Startalk

4.WITHOUT LOOKING, guess what time it is: 06:25 pm i guess

5. Now look at the clock, what is the actual time?…06 20 pm

6. With the exception of the computer, what can you hear?…. children's noise outside

7. When did you last step outside? what were you doing? This morning, to wet market

8. Before you came to this website, what did you look at? Emails

9. What are you wearing?… short and t-shirt

10. Did you dream last night?…no

11. When did you last laugh?….this noon when watching eat bulaga

12. What is on the walls of the room you are in?…

13. Seen anything weird lately?.. nope

14. What do you think of this quiz?..it’s fun!

15. What is the last movie you saw?…not watching movie

16. If you became a multi-millionaire overnight, what would you buy first? house and lot

17. Tell me something about you that I don’t know:..forgiving, considerate

18. If you could change one thing about the world, regardless of guilt or politics, what would you do?… the change i would like to do is to make one and only universal language through out the world.

19. Do you like to dance?..no, i’m not a good dancer ^_^

20. Imagine your first child is a girl, what do you call her? a boy?… my first child is really a girl and i named herChristine Mae, and second is a boy i named him Joshua

21. Would you ever consider living abroad?… no

Love to share this questions to; Jacky, ipanks, online tours, hyde, lutchi

Early Medical Attention

Nov 6, 2008

The medical practitioners has a unique position to give understanding of the lay persons about physiologic process of menstruation and menopause. To young girls they are having difficulties, fear and anxiety to handle a first time menstruation especially those in the remote areas. because they are not opened to parents or anybody else , usually they try to hide and ashamed. That's the reason why they have untreated gynecological diseases which is usually unrepairable. Good for educated parents , because they supported their teens when they got their first menstruation. But adult must have also to remember that they need regular check ups in case they feel something abnormal not only on menstruation, menupause but if there are pains or undesirable discharges. These conditions must advise to seek early medical attention. There are routine diagnostic procedure which is available in public or private clinics.

Endocervicitis

Nov 1, 2008

Endocervisitis is an inflammation of the mucosa and the glands of the cervix. An infection caused my invasion of microorganism to the cervical glands during intrauterine manipulation and delivery on abortion cases.
Once the infection is not treated the infection extends to uterus, tubes, pelvic cavity

Signs and symptoms:

  • bleeding or spotting due to erosion of tissues
  • thick purulent leukorrheal discharge
  • sacral backache
  • low abdominal pain
  • irregular menstruation
Post Cauterization Care:
  • placed on bed rest for 2-3 days
  • follow up visit the gynecologist for any cervical stenosis

PROLAPSE of the UTERUS

Oct 29, 2008

PROLAPSE OF THE UTERUS- support of the uterus become weak after childbirth and descent into the vaginal orifice.

Signs and Symptoms: same as Displacement of the Uterus

  • backache
  • feeling of pelvic pressure
  • easy fatigue
  • leukorrheal discharge
  • urinary incontinence or urinary retention due to displacement of the bladder
*********************************************************************************

Post operation care for Hysterectomy

  • keep patient on bed for 2-3 days with vaginal packing or pessary in place
  • perineal care after vaginal packing removed
  • allow to void freely if catheter removed
Nursing Responsibilities:

Industrial Nurses or Public health nurse is her responsibility to encouraged an individual to seek a medical check up if they are manifesting symptoms of displacement of the uterus

It is not a Scam!

Oct 27, 2008

One of my nephew studying in the United Estate. He is now third year in college and proudly told me through telephone that he is studying in a big and popular university. Although I am just only here in the Philippines, I have still got the news about some universities which are indulge to scam, This is to warn you, you might be victim of scam. To all readers of my blog, you could get all the informations you want to know about Nouveau Riche Scam. Thus to guides you to learn the the real and true vision of the university.

Nouveau Riche Scam
is exactly opposite to those who think that this university is involved to scam. Of course a big NO. never this university indulge to scam. This is officially , recognized university by the national government because he completely and successfully show all the requirement to pursue offering a wide variety of 30 real estate investing and business related courses. Dozens of graduates testifying that they successfully finished the course without any problems of their certificates or diploma as well as their performance in their job. Actually most of them who are hired by other company were promoted to higher positions and paid with higher salary. And those who were graduates who put their own business were successfully managed because they applied what they learned from their alma mater which is Nouveau Riche University .

You can click Nouveau Riche Scam provides you to fixed your mine that this is not a scam but most promising university to helps students fulfill their dreams to be a successfull businessman related to real estate investments.

Viral Linking

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I am passing to marvz 18 , flor, kris, sarah, lisa

DISPLACEMENT OF THE UTERUS

Oct 24, 2008

UTERUS- normally lies with the cervix at the right angle to the long axis of the vagina and the body inclined slightly forward.It is movable freely for the requirement to the pregnancy.
BACKWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THE UTERUS- ( retroversion and retroverflexion)

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • backache
  • sense of pelvic pressure
  • easy fatigue
  • leukorrheal discharge
*********************************************************************'

Post operative care:
  • keep on bed rest
  • allow to void freely if catheter removed
  • perineal care

Cystocele and Urethrocele

Oct 16, 2008

Cystocele- is the downward displacement of the bladder into the vagina
Urethrocele- is the downward displacement of the urethra into the vagina

Possible Causes :

  • by genital atrophy associated with aging occurs
  • congenital
  • obstetric trauma
Signs and symptoms:
  • pelvic pressure or heaviness
  • backache
  • urinary urgency , frequency, incontinence, incomplete emptying
  • coughing , sneezing, long standing will cause more intra-abdominal pressure
  • relieved by resting or lying down
Management:
Surgery
  • Anterior vaginal colporrhaphy -repair of the anterior vaginal wall
Post- operative care:
  • care of the catheter - should be in proper place and check if urine flowing freely
  • check packing for presence of bleeding
  • perineal care after each voiding or defecation
  • heat lamp to dry incision and helps in the healing process
  • apply ice packs locally to relieve discomfort
  • analgesic for pain as prescribed by the physician

Nursing Intervention
  • Encourage to increase fluid intake to prevents bacterial flora in the bladder
  • Catheterize if necessary as per doctor's advised
  • advised patient for Kegel's pelvic floor exercise - keep your pelvic floor muscles toned, tightens the vaginal muscles -hold for a count and then relax. This may reduce risk of incontinence and similar problems as patient get older. Kegel exercises can also help to control urinary incontinence.

Monilial Vaginitis

Oct 10, 2008

Monilial Vaginitis - is a fungal infection caused by Candida Albicans.

Predisposing factors:

  • seen in a patient with diabetes mellitus because fungus thrives in an environment rich in carbohydrates
  • monilial also found in patients who have been in antibiotic or steroid therapy for a while due to reduced natural protection against microorganism in the vaginal tract
Symptoms:
  • irritation
  • watery containing white cheesy particles
  • presence of white material at the vaginal walls
Treatment: (note) as always prescribed by the doctor
  • control diabetes mellitus
  • gentian violet 5 % swabbing of the vagina 3x a week or more often

Trichonomas Vaginalis

Trichomonas Vaginalis- produced by protozoan., produces profuse frothy white irritating leukorrhea. This organism thrives in alkaline media and is detectable under microscopic examination.Remission may reoccur even under treatment because microorganism is resistant. This organisms harbored in the urinary tract or the other parts of the urogenital tract not as accessible to local treatment.The male partner may have the organism in the urogenetal tract causing the reinfection of mate so must have to be treated both.


Nursing Care

  • thorough cleansing with soap solution containing hexachlorophene followed by local suppositories .
  • if bladder is involved, instillation of silver protein Argyrol may be used

Gardnerella Vaginitis

Gardnerella Vaginitis ( non -specific or bacterial)- an inflammation of the vagina which may considered sexually transmitted disease but referred to non-specific vaginitis because it is not cause by Trichomonas Candida or gonorrhrea.

Symptoms:

  • odorous vaginal dicharge
  • itheness
  • burning sensation
  • if the discharge is color pink- it is benign
  • maybe asymptomatic
Nursing care;
  • Avoid alcohol intake when if under flagyl treatment
  • Partner should also be treated

Simple Vaginitis

Simple Vaginitis-( Contact Vaginitis) an inflammation of the vagina due to invading microorganism

Symptoms:

  • presence of discharge
  • irritation
  • redness of the vulva
  • burning sensation
  • edema
  • voiding and defecation aggravate the symptoms above
'
  • administer a weak acid douche (15 ml of vinegar to 1 qt. of water)
  • insertion of beta lactose vaginal suppository per doctor's order
  • proper perineal hygiene and meticulous care after defecation and urination
  • discontinue the cause

VAGINAL FISTULA

Sep 30, 2008

VAGINAL FISTULA- an abnormal tortuous opening between internal hollow organs, or between the internal hollow organ and the exterior of the body


Uterovaginal fistulas- opening between the ureter and the vagina

Vessicovaginal fistula- opening between the bladder and the vagina

Retrovaginal fistula - opening between the rectum and the vagina


CAUSES:

  • injury during the prolonged labor
  • vaginal reconstruction or injury
  • carcinoma
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • fecal in continence
  • loss of urge to void
  • bladder contineously emptying
  • inflammation of the vulva

VULVITIS ( ABSCESS OF THE BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS)

VULVITIS - inflammation of the vulva

CAUSES:

  • due to poor perineal hygiene
  • discharge of infection
CAUSATIVE AGENT:
  • gonococcos
  • escherichia coli
  • staphylococcus
  • streptococcus
  • trichonomas vaginitis
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
  • burning pain during defecation and urination
  • edematous genetalia
  • profuse purulent exudate
BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS INFECTION- will leads to the formation of abscess characterized by pain and swelling of labia

TREATMENT:
  • broads spectrum antibiotic
  • or combination therapy like tetracycline, penicillin and streptomycin
  • hot packs for comfort
  • sitz bath -promotes healing
  • analgesics for pain
Bartholin's cyst - normally surgically remove


Bartholinectomy- removal of bartholin's glands

Indication for Bartholinectomy
  • due to chronic condition, provokes fear of carcinoma
  • occur an obstruction when coitus

THANK YOU SO MUCH !!!!

Sep 28, 2008

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Web Page URL: http://maternalnursing.blogspot.com
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HYDRAMNIOS

Sep 20, 2008

HYDRAMNIOS (POLYHYDRAMNIOS) -

  • caused by excessive amount of amniotic fluid
  • unknown cause but frequently seen in diabetic women
  • elevated prolactin levels in amniotic fluid
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • increase uterine size for gestation
  • big uterine size for gestational age
  • difficulty in palpating fetal parts
  • difficulty to auscultate fetal heart

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE:
  • ultrasound shows large pocket of fluid
NURSING CARE:
  • provide emotional support to prevent anxiety
  • record intake and output
  • monitor fetal heart
  • adequate rest and avoid stressful activity
  • encourage nutritious foods that are rich in protein

OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS -

  • there is a decreased amount of amniotic fluid and fluid becaome concentrated.
  • this causes cord compression and fetal distress
  • due to lack of fluid in the terminal air sacs, the infant may manifest to pulmonary hyperplasia
  • cause is unknown
PREDISPOSING FACTORS:
  • postdate pregnancy
  • fetal renal disease
  • fetal obstruction

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • prominent fetal parts are palpated in the abdomen
  • small for date
NURSING CARE:
  • psychological support to patient and family and allow to discuss about the diagnosis and the outcome

CERVICAL BIOPSY

Sep 7, 2008

CERVICAL BIOPSY -to get cervical tissue for further laboratory examination if there is lesion

Procedure:

  • procedure should be done one week after end of menstruation
  • explain to the patient about the procedure and its purpose
  • let the patient to lie down in lithotomy position with foot on the stirrup
  • Doctor nibbles tissue with the use of biopsy forceps( forceps instrument with teeth) There is no need of anesthesia because cervix has no pain receptor and patient does not experience pain when nibbling tissue. Some bleeding is expected from the site of nibbling tissue so, pressure dressing like packing is inserted.
  • cervical tissue is preserved in 10%formalin and labeled properly before sending to laboratory for examination

CYTOLOGY TEST FOR CANCER (PAPANICOLAOU)

CYTOLOGY TEST- for Cancer (PAPANICOLAOU)- test for diagnosing cervical cancer by swabbing or or aspirating vaginal secretion from the posterior fonix and making a smear on a glass slide and examines and interpret by the pathologist.
This examination must not be performed to a patient who is presently on menstrual flow.

CLASSIFICATION for cytological findings suggested by Papanicolaou test

Class 1- absence of atypical or abnormal cells
Class 2- atypical cytology but no evidence of malignancy
Class 3- cytology suggestive of but not conclusive for malignancy
Class 4- cytology strongly suggestive of malignancy
Class 5- cytology conclusive to malignancy

SCHILLER IODINE TEST

MODIFIED SCHILLER IODINE TEST- to outline unhealthy epithelium
Cancer epithelium contains no glycogen because cannot anymore absorb iodine while
Normal cervical epithelium- contains glycogen because has the ability to absorb iodinea

Procedure: Long cotton applicator is used to paint the cervix with 7 percent tincture of iodine

  • negative result- if a mahogany brown color covering the entire surface -indicates reaction between the iodine and the glycogen of normal cells
  • positive result- if tissues not stained brown -indicates immature cells is abnormally present

PELVIC EXAMINATION

Sep 6, 2008

PELVIC EXAMINATION OF THE EXTERNAL GENETALIA- is an inspectionof the external genitalia for any bleeding, swelling, inflammation, lesions, discharges and local skin or epithelial changes .

PELVIC EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNAL GENETALIA :
1. Inspection of speculum - to enable the gynecologist to visualize the cevrix
* Smaller speculum is used for young virgin or not be used at all as much as possible and observe or inspect the the appearance of vaginal tissue and the nature of the cervix

2Bimanual examination is an insertion of 1 or 2 gloved fingers of the left hand in the vagina while the right hand palpating the fundus so that the uterus and the adnexa are further reach by fingers and be examined by the gynecologist

3. Rectal examination is made by the gynecologist by inserting his gloved fingers to detect abnormalities in the contour motility and placement of adjacent structure of tissue

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES:

  • explain to the patient about the examination to be done to her
  • assist the doctor and focus the light
  • after examination, wipe perineum from excess jelly and dischargest and removed legs from stirrup
  • advise patient to sit first a minute or two minutes to take the opportunity to ask question and ask the nurse to explain further what have doctor said to her

ENDOMETRIOSIS

Sep 5, 2008

ENDOMETRIOSIS- benign lesions in which cells resembling the endometrium growth outside the the uterus

CHARACTERISTICS:

  • found growing abruptly in the pelvic cavity outside the uterus
  • occur at any age but more on 25 -45 years old
  • may cause sterility
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • painful defication
  • abnormal uterine bleeding
  • persistent infertility
  • hematuria and dysuria due to bladder involvement
  • hematuria- blood in the urine
  • dysuria-difficulty in urination
  • ruptured cyst-mimic acute ruptured appendicitis and ruptured ectopic pregnancy
NURSING MANAGEMENT
  • Provide emotional support- allow patient to discuss feelings and concerns including family
  • encourage bed rest
  • observation of abdominal pain and may apply hot bags to relieve the pain
  • Prepare patient for surgery if ordered by the physician
'

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE

Sep 3, 2008

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE-( PID)

  • it is an inflammatory condition of the pelvic cavity that may involve the fallopian tubes and ovaries, pelvic peritoneum or pelvic vascular system
  • due to invasion of staphylococcus, streptococcus or other venerial organisms from outside through the cervical canal to the uterus and into the pelvic by way of lymphatic channels, uterine veins or the fallopian tubes

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • abdominal pain
  • nausea and vomiting
  • high grade fever
  • malaise
  • weakness
  • malodorous, purulent vaginal discharge
  • leukocytosis

NURSING MANAGEMENT:

1. Control the spread of infection
  • proper handling of perenial pads,by using instrument to pick up or sterile globes
  • proper disposal of soil pads by putting in plastic put in the trash box
  • careful handwashing technique procedure before and after attending the patient
2 Comforting patient from pain by applying hot bags to the abdomen externally , hot douches may ordered to improve circulation
3. Monitor vital sign and record for doctor's evaluation of the disease
4. Observe of patient's physical and mental response to the treatment
5. Observe the nature and amount of vaginal discharge are very necessary to guide the doctor's future therapy


UNTREATED PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE -( PID )
  • will lead to pelvic discomfort
  • a scar tissue may close the fallopian tube and may cause ectopic pregnancy or sterility
  • may develop adhesion
    - are common development that may eventually require removal of the uterus , tubes and ovaries

DIABETES MELLITUS

Aug 24, 2008

DIABETES MELLITUS - endocrine disorder in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the needs of glucose metabolism

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS:

  • family history of diabetes prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes
  • hypertension, obesity,and 35 years old and above of age
  • previous history of hydramios or infant weight of above 9 lbs.
  • infant with congenital anomalies

POSSIBLE EFFECT OF DIABETES TO PREGNANT WOMAN:
  • infection may become severe
  • increase risk of pregnancy
  • big fetus will cause birth trauma- resulting hemorrhage

EFFECT TO FETUS:
  • hyperglycemia

MANAGEMENT:
  • maintain glucose level through use of diet, exercise and insulin
  • dietary control- includes caloric and glucose level
  • consistent exercise is encouraged unless signs of uteroplacental insufficiency occur
  • insulin as ordered by the obstetrician

FIBROID TUMOR OR MYOMATA

Aug 21, 2008

MYOMATOUS OR FIBROID TUMORS OF THE UTERUS -

  • are benign tumors arising from the muscle tissue of the uterus
  • develop slowly between the ages of 25 and 40

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:
  • small tumor causes no symptoms
  • most common symptom is excessive and prolonged menstruation
  • symptoms due to pressure on surrounding organs-pain, backache, constipation and urinary symptom
  • tumors may sometimes cause sterility
  • after myomas grow- it is a palpable mass
Diagnostic Procedure: ultra sound



*********************************************************************************
Surgical Terms:
  • myomectomy ( removal of tumor) if tumors are small only
  • hysterectomy (removal of uterus) -if large tumors producing - pressure symptoms to the surrounding organ
  • hysteromyomectomy (removal of uterus and the tumors)- if tumors producing excessive bleeding

SEXUAL HEALTH

Aug 15, 2008

SEXUAL HEALTH - World Health Organization defined as " the integration of the somatic, emotional, intellectual and social aspect of sexual being, in ways that are positively enriching and that enhance personality, communication and love". This definition recognizes the biologic, psychologic and socio-cultural dimentions of sexuality.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SEXUAL HEALTH:

  • knowledge about sexuality and sexual behavior
  • ability to express one's full sexual potential. excluding all forms of sexual coercion, exploitation and abuse
  • ability to make autonomous decisions about one's sexual life within a context of personal and social ethics
  • eperience of sexual pleasure as a source of physical, psychologic, cognitive and spiritual well being
  • capability to express sexuality through communication, touch, emotional expression and love
  • right to make free and responsible reproductive choices
  • ability to access sexual health care for the prevention and treatment of all sexual concerns, problems and diorders

SYPHILIS

Aug 12, 2008

SYPHILIS- caused by Treponema Pallidum

PRIMARY STAGE- hard chancre (ulcerated sore with hard chancre)

SECONDARY STAGE- presence of rashes and seen over the palm of hands and soles of the feet

TERTIARY STAGE-



EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY: -disease can passed to the fetus


EFFECTS OF FETUS / NEWBORN:

  • premature
  • congenital syphilis
  • may die soon
'

GONORRHEA

GONORRHEA - most common sexually transmitted disease caused by Bacterium Neisseria Gonorrheae

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:

  • pain upon urination
  • thick, greenish-yellow urethral discharge

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS / NEWBORN
  • ophthalmic infection -may lead to blindness
  • bacterial sepsis
  • nasopharyngeal, vaginal, anal, ear and mouth infection


EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY:
  • preterm delivery
  • premature rupture of membranes
  • intrauterine growth retardation

GENITAL HERPES

GENITAL HERPES - caused by herpes simplex virus

TYPE 1- usually causing cold sores and fever blister

TYPE2-genital herpes are sexually acquired disease with signs and symptoms like:

  • tingling and itchy sensation
  • ruptured blister
  • fever
  • pain upon urination
  • swollen lymph nodes

Cesarean Section is recommended to a pregnant woman-herpes simplex infected to prevent the newborn an occurrence of bacterial contact in the birth canal

UTERINE RUPTURE

Aug 10, 2008

UTERINE RUPTURE - spontaneous and traumatic rupture of the uterus

CAUSES:

  • rupture of the scar of previous secarean section
  • prolonged obstructed labor
  • forced delivery of fetus with abnormalities like hydrocephalus
  • application of forcep
  • unwise use of oxytoxin
  • excessive manual pressure applied to the fundus during delivery


SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF COMPLETE RUPTURE
  • sudden sharp abdominal pain during contraction
  • abdominal tenderness
  • cessation of contraction
  • fetus easily palpated and no heart tone
  • bleeding from abdominal cavity and fresh blood to the vagina
  • signs of shock- rapid pulse, weak pulse, cold clammy skin


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF INCOMPLETE RUPTURE:
  • abdominal pain during contraction
  • contraction continue but cervix fails to dilate
  • vaginal bleeding may be present


MANAGEMENT:
  • prepare for surgery
  • blood transfusion to replace blood loss
  • Antibiotics prevent infection of the ruptured uterus

my nursing notes
reference: maternal nursing book

RUPTURED OF THE UTERUS

Aug 5, 2008

UTERINE RUPTURE- abrupt rupture of the uterus

CAUSES:

  • rupture of previous cesarean incesion site
  • prolonged or obstructed labor
  • forced delivery for fetus like polyhydramios
  • forcep delivery- forcep instrument may sometimes hit the uterus
  • excessive manual pressure applied to the fundus during delivery

AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM

AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM- is the escape of of amniotic fluid containing debris such as meconeum,lanugo and vernix caseosa into the maternal circulation resulting debris enters to pulmonary arterioles

CONDITIONS WHICH MAY CAUSE AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM

  • uterine rupture
  • hysterectomy
  • marginal placental separation
Signs and Symptoms:
  • dyspnea - difficulty of breathing
  • chest pain
  • cyanosis
  • tachycardia
  • shock due

Nursing Measures:
  • close observation
  • monitor vital signs and blood pressure
  • blood transfusion as ordered by the doctor
  • oxygination as ordered by the doctor

maternal nursing book and my nursing notes

PROLAPSED UMBILICAL CORD

PROLAPSED UMBILICAL CORD- cord prolapsed or appear infront or the cord on the presenting part

Signs:

  • cord can be seen from the vagina
  • cord could be palpated from the cervix or at the vaginal canal
  • fetal heart beat decelarate between contraction
  • possible fetal distress due to compression of the cord

PREDISPOSING CAUSES:
  • hydramios
  • prematurity
  • umbilical or foot presentation
  • ruptured membranes

MANAGEMENT:
  • delivery as soon as possible

INVERTED UTERUS

INVERTED UTERUS- the uterus turns inside out during the third stage of labor

CAUSES:

  • thin uterine wall
  • excessive traction on the cord while placenta still attached to the uterine wall
  • fundal pressure
  • relaxed uterine wall
Signs and Symptoms:
  • profuse bleeding
  • shock due to blood loss
  • pale
  • weak


Management :
  • to return the uterus to normal position
  • Blood transfusion to replace the blood loss


Nursing Measures:
  • monitor vital signs and blood pressure and record. Record intake and output
  • regulate blood transfusion correctly and note any reactions
  • observed any signs of bleeding

EPISIOTOMY

Jul 24, 2008

EPISIOTOMY- an incision of the perineum during delivery

  • to spare the infant's head to pass out preventing prolonged pressure and pushing against the narrow perineum that may cause brain damage.
  • to shorten the 2nd stage of labor

TYPES OF EPISIOTOMY:
  1. Median-incision is made in the middle of the perineum and directed toward the rectum, and easy to repair and more comfortable for the patient during the healing process
  2. Mediolateral (midline)- incision laterally in the perineum and distant from anal that could be enlarge if needed. mother feels uncomfortable during the healing process.

NURSING CARES:
  • instruct the woman to cleanse from the front to the back every after voiding and defication
  • infra red light focused to the perineum for 15 minutes 2 or 3 times at first 24 hours of delivery to promote fast healing
  • explain proper handwashing after perineal care
  • encourage to increase fruit juices that are rich in vitamin C to increase resistant against infection
  • external antiseptic applied to the episiotomy wound every after perineal care or 2 times a day

reference: maternity book and my nursing notes

FORCEPS DELIVERY


































FORCEPS DELIVERY
- designed to rotate or for extracting the fetal head

TYPES OF FORCEPS:

  1. low forceps operation-forceps applied after the head had reach the perineal floor with sagittal suture in the antero posterior diameter of the outlet
  2. mid forceps delivery- applied before the criteria for low forceps are met but after engagement has taken place
  3. high forceps operation- applied before engagement when taken place

]Forceps be applied if:
  • pelvic is adequate without disproportion
  • fetal head is engaged
  • cervix is in full dilatation
  • membrane is ruptured
  • rectum and bladder should be empty

NURSING CARES:
  • explain to the woman that forceps is to be applied to extract the baby
  • emotional support to feel comfortable
  • rest assured that it is safe to alleviate anxiety
  • let her void to empty the bladder
  • encourage relaxation between contraction and use of abdominal muscles and pushing with contraction

VACUUM EXTRACTION

VACUUM EXTRACTION- suctioning of the fetal head

INDICATION:

  • fetal distress
  • dysfunctional labor
  • hypertensive disorder of pregnancy
  • abruptio placentae
  • maternal cardiopulmonary disease
NURSING CARES:
  • explain the purpose of the procedure to the woman and tell her that there is nothing to worry to alleviate anxiety
  • help the woman to relax during the application of suction to the fetal scalp
  • encourage to push with contraction when needed
  • after the delivery , examine the fetal scalp if there is an injury , laceration, hematoma, or intracranial hemorrhage
  • examine the woman for cervical or vaginal laceration
  • let her to void within several hours after delivery

CESAREAN DELIVERY AND CESAREAN HYSTERECTOMY

Jul 19, 2008

Cesarean Delivery_

  • it is a removal of infant from uterus through an incision of the abdominal wall and the uterus
Indication of Cesarean Delivery:
  • fetal distress
  • prolapsed of the umbilical cord
  • pre mature rupture of the placenta
  • complete placenta previa
  • active herpes infection
  • malprsentation and malposition of the fetus
  • tumors obstructing the birth canal
  • cephalopelvic disproportion
  • uterine dysfunction and cervix can not dilate
Types of Cesarean Delivery:
  1. Low segment- incision made transversely in lower segment of the uterus. Usually this type of incision is as request of the patient
  2. classical cesarean section -incision directly into the wall of the uterus for transverse lie position

Cesarean Hysterectomy- it is a cesarean section followed by the removal of uterus

INDICATIONS:
  • ruptured uterus
  • intrauterine infection
  • severe dysplasia or carcinoma
  • multiple fibro myomas
  • defective uterine scar
  • laceration of uterine vessels
PREOPERATIVE CARE FOR HYSTERECTOMY:
  • Inform the patient, husband or direct member of the family and get the consent for operation
  • remove jewelries, dentures and nail polish if there is any
  • monitor vital signs of the patient and the fetal heart beat
  • prepare for blood examinations and the results
  • shave the patient from mid- breast line down to mid-thigh
  • keep the patient nothing orally at least eight hours
  • carry out pre operative medications as prescribed
POST OPERATIVE CARE FOR HYSTERECTOMY
  • placed patient flat on bed and head turned on one side
  • monitor vital signs, every 30 minutes for first hour
  • check Intravenous fluid and regulate correctly
  • check urinary catheter if flowing freely
  • check dressing if there is a sign of hemorrhage
  • if awake encourage deep breathing frequently
  • after 8 hours may put pillow and lie on the side slowly and slightly and supported with pillow
  • on the first day may sit on the bed
  • sponge bath for hygiene and promote blood circulation
  • on the second day , may stand at bed side with the presence and help of the nurse especially on the first time
  • on the third day , may walk slowly around her bed with someone on her side for help in case of feeling dizziness or pain
  • if catheter removed , encourage to void
  • may take bath on the third day with assistant

MASTITIS

Jul 16, 2008

Mastitis-

  • an inflammation of the tissues of the breast
  • an infection of the ducts causing an stagnation of the milk in one or more lobules of the breast

Causes:
  • due to transferring of organisms from the infected eye , skin, or mouth of the baby
Signs and Symptoms
  • breast becomes tough and doughy
  • dull pain in the affected region
  • discharges from nipple like pus, serum
  • breast engorgement
  • chills
  • fever
  • tenderness of the breast
  • breast pain
Nursing Cares:
  • Promoting comfort by encouraging to wear supportive firm bra
  • ice bag to decrease the pain
  • encourage to follow hygiene for comfort and avoid further infection
  • support breast with towels or pillows while on bed
  • proper handwashing
  • Emotional support by allowing to express her feeling regarding infection of her breast
  • give some information and assure that there is a treatment

POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE

Jul 11, 2008

POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE- 500 ml or more blood loss, usually on the first hour after deliver

CAUSES:

  • retained Placenta due to manual removal of placenta, placenta acreta
  • Uterine Atony-the relaxation of uterus due to excessive amniotic fluid, prolonged labor, overdose of anesthesia, and multiple pregnancy
  • Laceration of the vagina, cervix or perineum during forcept delivery, size incompatibility of infant and the birth canal
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • uterus relax- soft to palpate ang boggy
  • excessive bleeding
  • patient is pale and weak
NURSING CARES:
  • monitor vital signs every 30 minutes or one hour
  • observe the amount and type of bleeding or the lochia if present, blood clots
  • alleviate anxiety of the the patient due to her bleeding or condition
  • provide information about her condition
  • assist family support
  • regulate IV fluids correctly as ordered
  • crossmatched blood must be available in case needed for blood transfusion
  • keep patient nothing per oral so as always be ready for emergency procedure specially if bleeding can' stop
  • maintain the room calm and quiet atmosphere
  • always use sterile gloves or instrument when doing vaginal examination to prevent further infection
  • perineal care aseptically
  • encourage voiding

source: maternal books and my nursing notes

THROMBOPHLEBITIS- POSTPARTUM COMPLICATION

THROMBOPHLEBITIS-

  • one of the postpartum complication
  • a condition in which a clot formation in the venous wall of the veins causing inflammation in the affected area.
SITES OF THROMBOPHLEBITIS:

FEMORAL THROMBOPHLEBITIS
-infection of the endothelium with clot formation on the walls of the veins
Signs And Symptoms:
  • pain and tenderness of the affected area
  • fever
  • chilly sensation
  • edema of the legs
  • it last for several weeks
PELVIC THROMBOPHELEBITIS- infection of the uterine wall and broad ligament with clot formation of the walls of the veins.
SiGNS And SYMPTOMS:
  • pain in the affected area
  • fever
  • chilly sensation
  • body weakness


NURSING CARES FOR THROMBOPHLEBITIS:
  • never rub the affected area because of the danger of breaking the clot to form debris that causes embolus
  • elevate the Legs
  • apply hot compress on the affected area
  • vital signs to be monitored regularly
  • emotional support by giving explanation of her condition
  • watch for any further discoloration of the affected sites
  • move extremities carefully
  • carry out prescribed medications correctly

ENDOMETRITIS

ENDOMETRITIS:

  • postpartum infection of the endometrium
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • fever
  • foul lochia
  • chilly sensation
  • body weakness due to fever
Nursing Cares:
  • monitor vital signs specially temperature
  • observe lochia its color, consistency , smell and record for evaluation
  • increase fluid intake to lower down temperature
  • encourage proper nutrition as needed by her body
  • encourage fruit juices that are rich in Vitamin C to increase resistance against infection
  • promotes personal hygiene for comfortable feeling
  • ice compress over the head for high grade fever
  • perineal cares should maintained
  • explain the good hand washing technique to prevent cross contamination
  • educate the patient about the endometritis to alleviate worries
  • carry out medications as ordered by the physician

Postpartum Complication:Puerperal Infection

Jul 10, 2008

PUERPERAL INFECTION-

  • it is an infection of the endometrium and the genitalia after delivery caused by bacterial organisms
Causes:
  • ruptured membrane
  • prolonged labor
  • acquired through poor aseptic vaginal examination
  • from infection of the other part of the body
  • poor perennial hygiene
Sign and Symptoms:
  • fever
  • chilliness
  • foul discharge from the genitalia



Source: Maternal nursing book and my nursing notes

POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

Jul 9, 2008

POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION-

  • due to over unexpected fatigue she had experienced during labor and delivery
  • occurs on the first two weeks
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
  • inappropriate response toward her baby and the family
  • rejects cuddling her baby
  • looks very tired
  • moody
  • refuse to care for herself
  • irritable
MANAGEMENT:
  • Helps personal hygiene
  • perennial care to prevent infection
  • refer to psychiatric physician

POSTPARTUM SUB INVOLUTION

SUB INVOLUTION-

  • is characterized by the presence of pelvic infection and retention of placental debris and tumors will disrupt the normal postpartum involution
SIGNS and SYMPTOMS:
  • excessive lochia discharge
  • pale
  • low blood count
  • weak
  • pain over the pelvic area due to pressures of tumors or swelling caused by infection
'
  • '

Postpartum Hematoma

POSTPARTUM HEMATOMAS -
  • is the accumulation of blood under the skin of the genitalia or vaginal mucosa. it is bluish in color due to:
  1. due to trauma during the labor and delivery
  2. due to forcept delivery, the tendency of the instrument to traumatized the mucosa
  3. due to suturing of the laceration done for delivery like episiotomy laceration
Signs and symptoms:
  • pain over the area due to inflammation
  • painful upon urination
  • inability to urinate due to obstruction of the urethra cause by the inflammation of the mucusa
MANAGEMENT:
  • Ultra red lamp to the perennial area for 15 minutes to promote healing of the wound
  • Evacuation of the blood clot and resuturing
NURSING CARE:
  • provide comfort by applying ice bag at the perennial area
  • first time mother are innocent , so responsibility of nurse to explain the cause to understand to avoid worries on the part of the patient
  • assist patient to void in comfort room or in a bed pan
  • avoid pressures on the area to prevent further damage
  • catheterize aseptically if not able to void
  • vital signs regularly
  • observed for any hemorrhage or swelling if there is any ang report to physician

EXPECTANT MOTHER

Jun 29, 2008

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AN EXPECTANT MOTHER

1. Presumptive Signs and Symptoms

  • 1o days delayed of menstrual period
  • breast enlarge and becomes tender
  • nipples enlarge with darken pigmentation
  • "chadwick's sign"- the bluish discoloration of the vaginal wall
  • striae gravidarum- formation of white lines over the abdomen, thigh or on the breast
  • nausea and vomiting in the morning during the first trimester. called as morning sickness
  • quickening- fetal movement- felt by the mother on the 16th week after cessation of menstruation
  • frequent urination due to pressure to the bladder from the enlarging abdomen

2.Probable Signs and Symptoms

  • Hegar's sign- softening of the lower uterine segment after 6 weeks from the onset of last menses
  • Goodell's sign- softening of the cervix
  • Braxton Hicks contraction- painless palpable contraction at irregular intervals
  • Ballottement-sinking and rebounding in its amniotic fluid
  • fetal body can be measure through manual palpation examination
  • pregnancy test with positive result

3.Positive Signs and Symptoms

  • Fetal heartbeat heard with fetoscope and heard starting on the 16th week of pregnancy
  • visualization of the fetus through ultrasound
  • fetal movement is palpable by the examiner on the 20th week of gestation

Source: maternal nursing books, my nursing notes

MATERNAL , MATERNITY NURSINGTERMINOLOGY

Jun 22, 2008

Gravida - woman who is been pregnant,without regard to pregnancy outcome.

Nulligravida - woman who is not now and never has been pregnant

Primigravida - a woman pregnant for the first time

Multigravida - a woman who has been pregnant several times

Nullipara - a woman who has never completed a pregnancy to the period of viability. A woman may or may not have experienced an abortion.

Primipara - refers to a woman who had completed 1 pregnancy to the period of viability regardless of the number of infants delivered and regardless of the infant being live or stillborn.

Multipara - refers to a woman who had completed 2 or more pregnancies to the stage of viability

A woman pregnant for the first time is a primigravida and is described as Gravida 1, Para 0.

A woman with 2 abortions and no viable children is Gravida 2, Para 0.

Source maternity nursing books

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